7. Summing it Up

Course Progress

Lesson Overview

The goals of this module were to (1) Identify examples of phonological processing; (2) Describe the phases of phonological processing development; (3) Explain considerations for facilitating phonological processing; and (4) Discuss various environmental factors that may impact phonological processing development. We reviewed the importance of phonological awareness, phonological naming, and phonological working memoryas a foundation for learning in young children’s development, discussed the connection between these abilities and the goals of future reading skills, and provided examples of the developmental progression from birth through age five. This module offered practical strategies for supporting the phonological processing development of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers in different early learning settings. 

Estimated Time: 5 minutes

  • EC1. Building Emergent Literacy
    • Pre-Assessment: Emergent Literacy
    • 1. Introduction to Emergent Literacy
    • 2. History of Teaching Literacy
    • 4. Assessment in Early Literacy
    • 5. Fostering Emergent Literacy
    • 6. Inclusive Approaches in Promoting Emergent Literacy
    • Post-Assessment: Phonological Processing

This module focused on phonological processing and its subcomponents as they relate to the emergent literacy phase of learning. Throughout this module, you learned about evidence-based, literacy-related strategies that support phonological processing in young children. As young children begin to develop their early language skills through home, school, and community settings, you can use this knowledge to foster their development. By understanding these concepts, participants will be better equipped to support children’s language skills during their crucial developmental years. 

In the upcoming module, Print Knowledge: The Why and The What, you will learn how to apply the knowledge gained in this module to the real-world settings with which you work. The next module will include practical ways to implement these strategies and provide examples of what this could look like. Additionally, this module will focus on the use of assessment to support instructional decision-making. Go to the ALL Ohio Literacy Library to enroll today!


Write down three key takeaways from this module. Was there anything that surprised you? What is something you can take and implement in your current setting?

Take NotesOn the lower right-hand corner of this page, you will find a Take Notes button. Click on the button to record your response. The button looks like this →

Summing It Up

Developing these component skills of phonological awareness is critical for a child’s literacy development. They serve as building blocks for successful reading and writing, laying the groundwork for more advanced phonics skills and overall language proficiency. Understanding and supporting the development of rhyme awareness, syllable awareness, and phoneme awareness are essential in early literacy instruction.The instructional strategies and routines learned in this module can be tools used to inform your instructional practices and prepare children for formal schooling in kindergartenThe instructional strategies and routines learned in this module can be tools used to inform your instructional practices and prepare children for formal schooling in kindergarten.

In this module, you learned instructional practices for developing phonological processing in young children. You explored instructional ideas in the two phonological processing subcomponents outlined by Paulson and Moats (2018) and Ohio’s Plan for Literacy Achievement (2020). Each sub-skill sets a strong foundation in the phonological process, leading young children toward school readiness.

Things to Remember

Phonological Processing Module Images

Early Intervention and Prevention

Phonological processing challenges can have long-lasting effects on a child's literacy development. Early identification and intervention are critical to prevent or address potential difficulties before they escalate. Regular assessments and proactive interventions, such as targeted phonological awareness activities, can significantly contribute to positive outcomes and help mitigate reading difficulties later in a child's academic journey (National Early Literacy Panel [NELP], 2008; Torgesen et al., 1999).


Multilingual and Cultural Sensitivity

Children from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds may bring a range of language experiences to the learning environment. It's essential to be sensitive to these variations and consider how different language structures and phonological systems may influence a child's development. Providing multilingual support and incorporating culturally relevant materials can enhance the effectiveness of phonological processing interventions (Genesee et al., 2004; Kilpatrick, 2015).


Individual Differences and Developmental Variability

Children develop phonological processing skills at different rates, and there is considerable variability in the acquisition of these skills. Some children may naturally progress more quickly, while others may need additional time and support. Recognizing and respecting these individual differences is crucial in tailoring interventions to each child's unique needs (National Institute for Literacy, 2008; Snow et al., 1998).

By keeping these considerations in mind, educators and parents can create a supportive and responsive environment that addresses the unique needs of each child in their phonological processing development. Emphasizing flexibility, cultural responsiveness, and early intervention enhances the effectiveness of strategies and interventions aimed at fostering strong phonological processing skills in young children.


After completing this module and reflecting upon what you have learned, write down 3 things you can immediately put into practice to support all learners.

Take NotesOn the lower right-hand corner of this page, you will find a Take Notes button. Click on the button to record your response. The button looks like this →

In the upcoming modules, you will continue to learn the importance of all three emergent literacy components and how to apply the knowledge gained to real-world settings. Go to the ALL Ohio Literacy Library to enroll today!


Beck, I. L., & McKeown, M. G. (2018). Deepening knowledge through vocabulary learning. Impact Journal of the Chartered College of Teaching. https://impact.chartered.college/article/beck-deepening-knowledge-through-vocabulary-learning/

CONNECT Module 6: Dialogic Reading Practices. https://connectmodules.dec-sped.org/connect-modules/learners/module-6/

Dikinson, D. K., Golinkoff, R. M., & Hirsch-Pasek, K. (2010). Speaking out for language: Why language is central to reading development. Educational Researcher, 39, 305-310. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X10370204

Dickinson, D. K., Griffith, J. A., Michnick Golinkoff, R., & Hirsh-Pasek, K. (2012). How Reading Books Fosters Language Development around the World. Child Development Research, vol. 2012. Available online at: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2012/602807/cta/.

Fricke, S., Bowyer-Crane, C., Haley, A. J., Hulme, C., & Snowling, M. J. (2013). Efficacy of language intervention in the early years. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 54, 280– 290. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12010

Genishi, C. (1998). Young Children’s Oral Language Development. ERIC Digest. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education.

Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experiences of young American children. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

Johnson, J. J., Rahn, N. L. & Bricker, D. (2015). An activity-based approach to early intervention (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.Thick and Thin Conversations https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/video/thick-thin-conversations

Koohi, A. (2018) The Power of Turn-taking: How Back-and-forth Interactions Help Children Learn Language. Retrieved from: http://www.hanen.org/Helpful-Info/Articles/power-turn-taking.aspx?_cldee=c3RlcGhhbmllQGJvc3RvbmFiaWxpdHljZW50ZXIuY29t&recipientid=contact-71d3f135de99e511b10900155db60c03-cd40a765dc04443090d8ae626b7fe19c&esid=0767f8c0-7c63-e811-b9ac-00155db63606

Lonigan, C. J., Purpura, D. J., Wilson, S. B., Walker, P. M., & Clancy-Menchetti, J. (2013). Evaluating the components of an emergent literacy intervention for preschool children at risk for reading difficulties. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 114, 111–130. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2012.08.010

Lonigan, C. J., C. Schatschneider, & L. Westberg. 2008. “Identification of Children’s Skills and Abilities Linked to Later Outcomes in Reading, Writing, and Spelling.” In Developing Early Literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel, by The National Early Literacy Panel, 55–106. Washington, DC: National Institute for Literacy.

Neuman, S. B. (2011). The challenge of teaching vocabulary in early education. In S. B.

Neuman & D. K. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (Vol. 3, pp. 358–372). New York, NY: Guilford.

Nippold, M. A. (2016). Later language development: School-age children, adolescents, and young adults. PRO-ED.

Ohio Department of Education. (2020). Ohio’s Plan to Raise Literacy Achievement. Ohio Department of Education. https://education.ohio.gov/getattachment/Topics/Learning-in-Ohio/Literacy/Ohios-Plan-to-Raise-Literacy-Achievement.pdf.aspx

Ruston, H. P., & Schwanenflugel, P. J. (2010). Effects of a conversation intervention on the expressive vocabulary development of prekindergarten children. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, 41, 303– 313. doi:10.1044/0161-1461(2009/08-0100)

Wasik, B., & Jacobi-Vessels, J. L. (2017). Word play: Scaffolding language development through child-directed play. Early Childhood Education Journal, 45, 769-776. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-016-0827-5

What Works Clearinghouse. (2015). WWC intervention report: Shared book reading.

Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/intervention_reports/wwc_sharedbook_041415.pdf


Special thanks are extended to the following individuals for developing the content and design of this module:  

UC SDI Center